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Estratégias para o manejo do teiú (Salvator merianae Duméril & Bibron, 1839), um lagarto invasor no arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, PE, Brasil São Paulo - Tese de Doutorado USP

RESUMO 

Fernando de Noronha é um arquipélago oceânico localizado a 345 km da costa brasileira, habitado desde o século XVII. Sua economia é baseada no turismo, que tem apresentado rápido crescimento nas últimas décadas. Este ecossistema único é reconhecido como Patrimônio Mundial pela Unesco e é um sítio Ramsar. Toda sua extensão terrestre e grande parte da área marinha ao seu redor é protegida por duas unidades de conservação federais, sob tutela do Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. Existem pelo menos 15 espécies de plantas e animais nativos oficialmente ameaçadas de extinção, algumas destas endêmicas do arquipélago. Dentre as 22 espécies de animais e plantas invasoras conhecidas em Fernando de Noronha, o teiú (Salvator merianae) constitui um grande risco à fauna nativa por ser um predador oportunista de grande porte. O potencial impacto do teiú é reconhecido e seu manejo é previsto pelas unidades de conservação do arquipélago. O teiú se encontra presente em altas densidades na ilha principal tendo sido também registrados indícios de sua presença ao menos na Ilha Rata. A densidade de teiús encontrada em Fernando de Noronha foi de 13,8± 3,9 animais por hectare em uma área não habitada e comvegetação relativamente preservada e de 4,0± 1,1 animais por hectare numa área pouco habitada. O número estimado de indivíduos atualmente vivendo na ilha principal variou entre 6.906 a 12.270 indivíduos adultos. A área de vida estimada foi de 10,5 (7,3- 15,3) ha para ambos os sexos. A probabilidade de captura foi de 0,24±0,06 animais/armadilha/dia na área, com 4 animais/ha, sendo influenciada pelo tamanho dos indivíduos. O teiú também constitui um potencial risco à saúde pública do arquipélago, por serem portadores da bactéria Salmonella enterica, isoladas em 56,9% dos animais capturados e em 70,5% dos pontos amostrados. Ao menos 15 sorotipos foram determinados por métodos moleculares para esta população. Para propor formas de manejar esta espécie em Fernando de Noronha, foram criados modelos de viabilidade populacional com diferentes cenários de manejo por 10 anos. Nos cenários sem manejo, a população de teiús não se extingue ao longo de 30 anos. O aumento das probabilidades de extinção é proporcional ao aumento da intensidade de manejo, tanto nos cenários que consideram a população de toda a ilha principal (A) quanto nos cenários que consideram parte desta população numa área de 214 ha (B). A remoção anual de 20% dos indivíduos adultos seria suficiente para gerar cenários de extinção da população. Com a remoção anual de 50% dos indivíduos adultos, a probabilidade de extinção seria de 54% e a média do tempo para a extinção estaria entre 5,2 e 5,4 anos de manejo, demonstrando que o controle desta espécie é possível em Fernando de Noronha, se os métodos de captura e esforço forem adequados. O manejo em uma pequena área (C) de 2,14 ha poderia ser feito em apenas 13 dias utilizando-se 10 armadilhas. Na área B (que inclui a área C), o manejo de maior intensidade poderia ser realizado em 44 dias por ano, durante quatro anos, utilizando 258 armadilhas. As recomendações incluem o aumento gradativo da área manejada, o uso de manejo adaptativo, o envolvimento da sociedade e o sinergismo com outros esforços de manejo de espécies invasoras na área ambiental e de saúde pública. Este estudo fornece a base científica para um programa de manejo com objetivo de conservar a biodiversidade e de melhorar a saúde pública em Fernando de Noronha.

Palavras-chave: Espécie invasora; ilha, conservação, saúde única, répteis.


ABSTRACT 

Fernando de Noronha is an oceanic archipelago placed 345 km off the Brazilian coast and inhabited since the 17th century. Its tourism-based economy is increasingly growing in the last decades. This unique ecosystem is recognized by Unesco as a World Heritage site and is also a Ramsar site. The whole terrestrial extension and a large marine area around the archipelago are protected by two federal protected areas, supervised by the Instituto Chico Mendes para Conservação da Biodiversidade. There are at least 15 species of native plants and animals officially endangered, some of them endemic to the archipelago. Among the 22 invasive species of plants and animals known to Fernando de Noronha, the tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) constitutes a great risk to native fauna as a large opportunistic predator. The potential impact of the tegu is recognized, and its management is predicted to the protected areas of the archipelago. This species achieves high densities on the main island and there is evidence of its presence at least on Rata Island. Densities found for FN were 13.8 ± 3.9 animals per hectare in an uninhabited area of preserved vegetation and 4.0 ± 1.1 animals per hectare in a sparsely populated area. Total numbers of animals for the main island ranges from 6,906 to 12,270 adults. The home range is 10.54 (7.3-15.3) hectares for both sexes. Capture probability is 0.24 ± 0.06 animals/trap/day in the area with 4.0 animals/ha, being influenced by the size of the individuals. The tegu also represents a potential public health risk for the archipelago, as carriers of the bacteria Salmonella enterica, isolated from 56.9% of the captured animals and found in 70.5% of the sampled spots. At least  serotypes were determined by molecular methods for this population. In order to propose management options for this species in FN, models of population viability were created with different scenarios of management over 10 years. In control scenarios, populations persist for over 30 years. Extinction probabilities increases with management intensity either in the scenarios considering the entire main island population (A) or part of the population from an area of 214 ha (B). Removal of 20% of adults yearly should be enough to generate extinction scenarios. The yearly removal of 50% of adults leads to a probability of extinction should be of 54% in an extinction mean time of 5.2 to 5.4 years of management. This demonstrates the possibility of control of the species in Fernando de Noronha if effort and methods are appropriate. Management in a smaller area (C) of 2.14 ha could be done in only 13 days using 10 traps. The highest intensity management to the area B (including area C), could be done in 44 days per year, for 4 years, using 258 traps. The recommendations include gradual increment of the managed area, the use of adaptive management strategies, community involvement and synergism with other environmental and public health efforts on invasive species. This work provides scientific basis for a management program to conserve biodiversity and improve public health in Fernando de Noronha.

Keywords: Invasive specie, island, conservation, one health, reptiles.

Ano de Publicação: 2019

Fogo no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra/MG: Abordagem dos aspectos fisiográficos e humanos na concepção de uma proposta de Manejo Integrado de Fogo. - Dissertação de Mestrado UNESP

RESUMO

Historicamente o fogo no Cerrado é recorrente, além de desempenhar um papel ecológico importante nos ecossistemas, é utilizado por populações rurais como ferramenta de manejo da terra. Entender os efeitos das queimas sobre a fauna e flora, assim como, conhecer os vários tipos de uso do fogo pelas pessoas é essencial para se avaliar o risco de ocorrência de incêndios em Unidades de Conservação – UC, e propor um manejo de fogo que corresponda à realidade e contexto de cada região. Embora alguns estudos indiquem que a ocorrência de fogo no Cerrado seja antiga, não há clareza sobre os impactos das alterações antrópicas no regime de fogo. O Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (PNSC), MG, composto em sua maior parte por diferentes fitofisionomias de Cerrado, enfrenta problemas com incêndios florestais anualmente, atingindo a maior parte de sua área em uma única ocorrência. O trabalho visa identificar elementos físicos, biológicos e humanos que possam contribuir com a ocorrência de incêndios no PNSC, e compreender como é feito o manejo de prevenção e combate a incêndios na UC e seu entorno, contando com uma análise bibliográfica, pesquisa junto a documentos governamentais sobre a ocorrência de incêndios e estratégias de prevenção e combate a incêndios, trabalhos de campo para registros documentais e fotográficos, além da aplicação de questionários aos moradores da região e funcionários da Unidade. Com as informações obtidas foi possível elaborar uma proposta de Manejo Integrado de Fogo para o PNSC, em que a aplicação, adaptação e participação de diferentes atores da sociedade são componentes essenciais e  indispensáveis para que ocorra a consolidação e sucesso do manejo de fogo nas UCs do Cerrado.

Palavras-chave: Incêndios. Cerrado. Unidade de Conservação. Combate e prevenção a incêndios. Manejo participativo e adaptativo.

ABSTRACT

Historically fire in the Cerrado is recurrent, besides playing an important ecological role in the ecosystems, it is used by rural populations as a tool for land management. To understand the effects of burns over fauna and flora, as well as, to know the various kinds of fire use by people, is essential to evaluate the risk of fire occurrence in Protected Areas – PA, and to propose a fire management which corresponds to the reality and context of each region. Although some studies indicate that the occurrence of fire in the Cerrado is ancient, there is no distinctness about the impacts of anthropogenic changes in fire regimes. The National Park of Serra da Canastra (NPSC), MG, composed in its majority by different parts of Cerrado’s phytophysionomies, faces forest fires annually reaching most of its area in a single occurrence. The work aims to identify physical, biological and human elements that can contribute to the occurrence of fires in the NPSC, and comprehend how fire management is done in the PA and in its surroundings, counting on a literature review, governmental documents’ research about fire occurrence and fires prevention and combat strategies, field works for documented and photographed records, besides the application of questionnaires in the locals and staff of the PA. With the obtained information, it was possible to elaborate an integrated fire management proposal for the NPSC, in which the application, adaptation and participation of different actors of the society are essential and indispensable components to occur its consolidation and fire management success in the PAs of the Cerrado.

Keywords: Wildfires. Cerrado. Protected Area. Fire prevention and firefighting. Participatory and adaptive management.


Ano de Publicação: 2013

Woody plant species co-occurrence in Brazilian savannas under different fire frequencies

a b s t r a c t

Fire plays an important role in determining the structure of the vegetation of savannas. Consequently, frequent fires are expected to assemble closely related plant species with very similar fire-related functional traits. We assessed the influence of different fire frequencies on patterns of co-occurrence of woody species at a fine spatial scale in Brazilian savannas. We used quantile regressions to test the relationship between co-occurrence indices and both phylogenetic distances and functional differences, calculated for every possible pair of species. Our results indicated that fire changes the pattern of co-occurrence of woody plants. Functionally different species co-occurred predominantly in a site protected from fire, whereas functionally similar species co-occurred predominantly in sites frequently burned. However, we did not find correlations between co-occurrence and phylogenetic distance of species, due probably to the random distribution of some functional traits in the phylogeny of savanna species. Thus, fire acts as an important environmental filter at fine spatial scales in Brazilian savannas, promoting functional – but not phylogenetic – clustering of plants.


Ano de Publicação: 2010

The Land Chief’s embers: ethnobotany of Batéké fire regimes, savanna vegetation and resource use in Gabon

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic fire regimes and society are linked: social change modifies fire application which then impacts ecosystems. In the past 40 years, savanna burning has changed markedly around the world as policies, laws, and cultures change. This thesis explores the links between fire regime and culture by analysing the decline of the fire-based Bateke land chief’s authority in Gabon. Unlike other parts of sub-Saharan Africa where colonial anti-fire policies have been strict and punitive, fire policy in Gabon has been lax. As such, today’s savanna fires are neither suppressed nor managed, and their value to the local economy and national conservation is not yet fully recognised. This thesis addresses the changing role of the Bateke as savanna keepers, the effects of their fire regimes on their savanna ecosystem, and the contribution of fire to biodiversity and present day fire-foraging. The effects of the fire regime on the ecosystem are explored through plant collection, participant observation, surveys, interviews, and finally vegetation plots analysing the impacts of different fire treatments. The land chief’s authority was part of a magico-religious system where land fertility was guaranteed by conducting rituals and proper burning procedures. This system effectively ended in the late 1960s during a tumultuous time in Bateke history, resulting in a change in fire culture and hence fire regime. The fires under the land chief system were regulated, annual, dry season hunting occurrences conducted by the community and part of maintaining land fertility. By contrast, today’s fires are lit by individuals who are no longer under the land chief’s authority. Hence, these fires are unregulated, occurring at all times of the year and often semi-annually. Generally, burning stimulates tree resprouting and clears mature grass. However annual and semi-annual fires have different levels of resprout survival based on resprout size, fire intensity, and patchiness. More frequent fires are less intense, creating patches which serve as micro-sites favouring stem survival. In terms of plant diversity, the savannas maintain a flora that is unique for Gabon, though not rare worldwide. The dry-season seems to be the most important season to burn in order to maintain this diversity. Anthropogenic fire is important for Bateke livelihoods where fire and foraging are related; 80% of survey respondents link fire and food. Today’s foraging traditions make fire important for Bateke livelihoods, despite being less connected to land fertility rituals of the past. Taking a national view, most protected savannas in Gabon are not managed by fire and some managers do not recognise its importance to local livelihoods and culture. The land chief system, though probably not designed to protect resources, may offer lessons of fire control in a cultural context of contemporary management of protected areas.

Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Title:The Land Chief’s embers: ethnobotany of Batéké fire regimes, savanna vegetation and resource use in Gabon
Open access status:An open access version is available from UCL Discovery

Ano de Publicação: 2010

Best Practices of Fire Use – Prescribed Burning and Suppression Fire Programmes in Selected Case-Study Regions in Europe

EFI - Research Report 24

Executive summary Prescribed burning is increasingly being recognized and incorporated as a management practice in forest and other land management policies, especially in those countries which were pioneering its introduction in Europe. In this context, prescribed fire appears to be a potential management technique to attain different objectives such as silvicultural improvement, control of insects and diseases, habitat management and biodiversity conservation. Further, it has been demonstrated in the field of fire management that the use of fire is an efficient tool for the reduction of hazardous fuels and as an indirect attack during wildfire suppression (suppression fire). In most European countries, however, there are still important constrains and negative attitudes towards the use of fire that need to be overcome. In the frame of the Fire Paradox project “An innovative approach for integrated wildland fire management. Regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire: solving the fire paradox” (2006–2010), which aims to create the scientific and technological bases for new practices and policies for integrated wildland fire management, the assessment of prescribed burning and suppression fire practices has been undertaken by both the research and development domains, in order to identify opportunities as well as promote the future development of strategies for its implementation in Europe. Within this context, this publication aims to provide policy makers, policy implementers and the general public with background information and analysis for the successful implementation of prescribed burning and suppression fire practices in European countries. By analysing successful case studies, it seeks to understand the factors that influence the success of prescribed burning and suppression fire and to facilitate application in other countries. For this purpose the book is structured in three sections. The first section provides background information for those not familiar with the practice of fire use for management objectives. It includes general and basic notions on prescribed burning and suppression fire, as well as an overview of the spatial and temporal development of both practices in Europe. It also provides the main criteria considered for the identification of good examples. The second section constitutes the core of the book, which consists of a selection of good practices and best programmes that present, in some cases, long-term examples for the most representative objectives for fire use as a management practice in Europe, namely nature conservation in protected areas, the management of habitats for hunting, landscape management, fire use in fuel reduction and during fire fighting (suppression fire). The authors of the case studies are managers responsible for the creation and implementation of the practice or programme of the Fire Paradox consortium as well as external professionals. The reason for this choice is related to the character of the book, which serves to disseminate good practices, and therefore needs the adoption of a more practical approach to be better understood by end-users. The book concludes with an analysis of potential barriers and factors for success for the development of prescribed burning and suppression fire, as well as a discussion on the lessons learned and the way ahead.


Ano de Publicação: 2010

Resprouting and mortality of juvenile eucalypts in an Australian savanna: impacts of fire season and annual sorghum

Abstract

ABSTRACT

In northern Australian savannas, canopy tree species often have juvenile tree banks that are composed mainly of small individuals of indeterminate age that have resprouted repeatedly after fire. Little is known about their demography. We report the initial responses (mortality, topkill and resprouting type) of 3133 marked juvenile eucalypts to set fires of different seasons (early dry season, late dry season, wet season, unburnt) in a 32 400 m2 field experiment. Fire treatments were repeated in plots dominated by a native annual grass (sorghum) that becomes senescent before the early dry season and provides the main fuel of savanna fires, and in others with little or no sorghum, but instead other native grasses and forbs that remain green well into the dry season. Most juvenile eucalypts <150 cm high were topkilled but resprouted from underground tissues regardless of fire season or understorey (86–100% vs <5% in unburnt plots). Few saplings 200–500 cm high died or were topkilled, but impacts of fire were harsher in sorghum than in non-sorghum vegetation. The response of eucalypts 150–199 cm high was intermediate, suggesting a ‘tactical’ transition from suppressed persistence to growth toward maturity. Counter-intuitively, genet death of juvenile trees was >22% in the low-intensity early dry season fire in plots with little or no annual sorghum, compared with <2% in all other fire/understorey combinations. We suggest results are related to fire behaviour, seasonal carbohydrate storage dynamics and competition with ground-layer plants.


Ano de Publicação: 2010

OS INCÊNDIOS DE 2010 NOS PARQUES NACIONAIS DO CERRADO

Este relatório mostra os resultados de um levantamento feito com imagens de satélite para quantificar as queimadas ocorridas na estação seca de 2010 em Parques Nacionais destinados à proteção do Cerrado. Incluímos também a Ilha do Bananal e seu entorno, excedendo, portanto, a área do Parque Nacional do Araguaia, pois os incêndios ali ocorridos em setembro formaram uma impressionante mancha praticamente contínua, cuja área total excedeu a do estado de Alagoas. O incêndio nos campos de altitude do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (RJ), ocorrido em agosto, também é apresentado nesse documento, embora não se trate de vegetação de cerrado. 

Ano de Publicação: 2010

Managing the matrix: decadal responses of eucalypt-dominated savanna to ambient fire regimes

Abstract

Much of our understanding of the response of savanna systems to fire disturbance relies on observations derived from manipulative fire plot studies. Equivocal findings from both recent Australian and African savanna fire plot assessments have significant implications for informing conservation management and reliable estimation of biomass stocks and dynamics. Influential northern Australian replicated fire plot studies include the 24-year plot-scale Munmarlary and the five-year catchment-scale Kapalga, mesic savanna (> 1000 mm/yr of rainfall) experiments in present-day Kakadu National Park. At Munmarlary, under low-to-moderate-intensity fire treatments, woody vegetation dominated by mature eucalypts was found to be structurally stable. At Kapalga, substantial declines in woody biomass were observed under more intense fire treatments, and modeling assessments implicate early-season fires as having adverse effects on longer-term tree recruitment. Given these contrasting perspectives, here we take advantage of a landscape-scale fire response monitoring program established on three major northern Australian conservation reserves (Kakadu, Litchfield, and Nitmiluk National Parks). Using statistical modeling we assess the decadal effects of ambient fire regime parameters (fire frequency, severity, seasonality, time since fire) on 32 vegetation structure components and abundance of 21 tree and 16 grass species from 122 monitoring plots. Over the study period the mean annual frequency of burning of plots was 0.53, comprising mostly early-dry-season, low-severity fires. Structural and species responses were variable but often substantial, notably resulting in stem recruitment and declines in juveniles, but only weakly explained by fire regime and habitat variables. Modeling of these observations under three realistic scenarios (increased fire severity under projected worsening climate change; modest and significant reductions in fire frequency to meet conservation criteria) indicates that all scenarios have positive and negative structural implications. Effecting significant regional fire regime change (e.g., reduction in frequency and size of severe fires) is demonstrably feasible, but it incurs risks and potentially some undesirable structural consequences. Given recent Australian and African experience, the generality and application of landscape-scale implications derived from manipulative fire assessments (including variable grazing and browsing regimes) in savanna require more critical assessment.


Ano de Publicação: 2010

Indigenous Use of Fire and Forest Loss in Canaima National Park, Venezuela. Assessment of and Tools for Alternative Strategies of Fire Management in Pemón Indigenous Lands

Abstract

ABSTRACT 

In Canaima National Park (CNP), Venezuela, a protected area inhabited by the Pemón people, socio-cultural and demographic changes have contributed to the apparent unsustainable use of fire, leading to forest and habitat loss. This over-use of fire, together with increased forest vulnerability to fire as a result of global climate change, could put both ecosystems and human well-being at risk. The conflict over fire use derives from the fact that whereas the Pemón depend for their livelihood on the use of fire for shifting cultivation and hunting, the policy of the CNP government agencies is fire exclusion (although this is not effectively enforced). Nevertheless, recent ecological studies have revealed that the creation of a mosaic of patches with different fire histories could be used to create firebreaks that reduce the risk of the wildfires that threaten the vulnerable and diverse savanna-forest transition areas. This technique imitates the traditional cooperative savanna burning strategies of the Pemón. By linking research on knowledge systems with management policies, the impasse over fire in the CNP might be avoided.

Keywords

Key words: Fire ecology,  Canaima National Park,  Venezuela,  Indigenous Pemón,  Savanna-forest transition 

Ano de Publicação: 2010

Grass mortality in semi-arid savanna: The role of fire, competition and self-shading

Abstract

ABSTRACT 

Perennial grasses are a dominant component of many vegetation formations and provide important ecosystem services including supporting herbivoresand preventing soil erosion. Despite their importance, our understanding of the processes that influence their mortality rates is surprisingly limited. This study explores the effects of local and landscape-scale processes on mortality of a perennial grass (Stipagrostis uniplumis) in semi-arid savanna. We focussed on three local-scale factors: self-shading by the standing dead biomass of a tuft, plant size, and neighbour abundance as a measure of intra-specific competition. Three indices of neighbour abundance were calculated: number of neighbours, sum of the neighbours’ basal area, and sum of the neighbours’ living basal area. At the landscape scale, we explored the influence of fire on tuft mortality. The amount of standing dead biomass increased the mortality rates of tufts. Neighbour abundance, indexed as the sum of the living basal area of neighbours, was also associated with higher mortality rates, whereas the other indices of neighbour abundance had no influence on mortality rates. On a landscape level, fire significantly increased tuft mortality rates, from up to 31% for unburned tufts, to 73% for burned tufts. Fire, on the other hand, indirectly reduces the risk of future mortality by reducing self-shading and competitive pressure. Our results imply that the timing and frequency of fires is crucial for their positive indirect effects on plant fitness. As the onset of local effects on plant mortality is highly dependent on grazing pressure and stochastic rainfall, fire management should flexibly take into account the accumulation of dead plant material on a site

Key Words : Demography, Density-dependent mortality, Disturbance, Intra-specific competition, Tuft mortality, Survival


Ano de Publicação: 2010