Originally, C.T. wrote this book for the Pledge of Resistance in Boston when it had over 3500 signers and 150 anity groups. All policy decisions for the organization were made at monthly spokesmeetings, involving at least one spokesperson from each anity group. Members from the coordinating committee were charged with managing daily aairs. Spokesmeetings were often attended by over one hundred people; they were usually seventy strong. For almost two years the process of consensus worked well for the Pledge, empowering very large numbers of people to engage condently in nonviolent direct action. The forerunner of the model of consensus outlined in this book was used throughout this period at spokesmeetings and, particularly well, at the weekly coordinators meetings. However, it was never systematically dened and written down or formally adopted.