One important human wildlife conflict that has gaining importance is the perceived threat wild animals present as diseases’ transmitters. In 2017, an expressive yellow fever (YF) outbreak occurred in a previously no risk area for the disease in Brazil, resulting in monkeys dying from the illness, but also because they were killed by people who believed they were responsible for the outbreak. Some of these monkeys died inside or close to protected areas, including national parks. This category is peculiar, because it is open to visitation and might facilitate the propagation of the disease from animals to men and vice versa, but the role it plays is not universally known. To understand the conflict between people and monkeys related to YF in National Parks and how they differ in areas with recent outbreaks or not we used the social representations theory. Between the months of July and September we performed 102 interviews, 43 in Brasília National Park (BNP), not affected by 2017 outbreak, and 59 in Caparaó National Park (CNP), who was closed temporarily due to the epizootic outbreak. We interviewed neighbors of both national parks, health professionals, and park professionals, to see how they represent national parks, YF and monkeys aiming to understand this conflict and national parks, improve communication and protect the different monkeys’ species. The results went beyond this conflict, when we learned that the groups who do not work directly with BNP represent the Park as important for preservation, but while the neighbots feel like outsiders, the health pros understand the preservation as means of recreation, while in CNP, people had a closer sense of belonging. Yellow Fever is not well communicated and caused fear to the ones who do not work directly with it in BNP. On the other hand, in CNP the information about the YF was similar between health pros and neighbors, highlighting the disease, while the Park Pros placed importance on the sylvatic cycle affecting the monkeys. The neighbos of both sites and the health pros of CNP considered monkeys as animals, while the health pros of CNP and both groups of park pros presented a more positive representation of them. We also noted that to the groups, monkeys are not to blame for the YF, even though they might transmit. The detachment presented by some groups, associated with the fear of the disease and the information that monkeys transmit this disease might be a reason for the killings. The reasoning would be that even though they are not guilty, the transmission will cease if they are dead and because they are just animals, this action is justified. From these examples, the findings showed that the representations presented different levels of similarities and differences among the groups in both sites. By knowing where these groups stand we can develop a better communication strategy, tailored to the specificities of these two sites.