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Downscaling the Gap: Protected Areas, Scientific Knowledge and the Conservation of Amphibian Species in Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

Abstract.

 Protected areas (PAs) cover a small proportion of the Earth’s surface and most species are not covered by the current network. Amphibians are the least represented group in PAs around the world and expanding the network is still the major recommendation for species conservation. We evaluated the effectiveness of PAs in safeguarding endemic amphibians in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. We conducted a gap analysis to highlight site-based conservation actions for target species within study site. We extracted occurrence points from the national database and calculated the intersection between the minimum convex polygon and natural vegetation remnants for each species. For each target species, we calculated the percentage of the range covered by PAs and assessed the scientific knowledge based on academic publications between 1950–2015. We recorded 206 amphibians in Minas Gerais, of which 127 occur in the Cerrado. We identified 24 target species and concluded that 80% are insufficiently protected by the current PA network. A quarter of the species have zero coverage and most species have < 30% of their range legally protected. In southwestern Minas Gerais, we recommend habitat restoration and connectivity to provide additional habitat to target species. In western Minas Gerais, the creation of PA seems to be the best solution. The distribution of target species is concentrated in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, where we recommend the establishment of biodiversity corridors. We examined 246 publications, most of which focus on taxonomy. Few species have sufficient information to have their conservation status re-assessed, with only 26.8% of publications containing specific information on conservation. Scientific knowledge must be improved for all research areas, especially species distributions and ecology, to support evidence-based conservation and management actions.

Keywords. Cerrado; DD species; Endemic species; Geographical information system; Protected areas effectiveness; Representativeness.

Ano de Publicação: 2019

National Policies for the Conservation and Management of Melanosuchus niger in Brazil: Species status & monitoring, research and current regulations

Official Brazilian Report to the CITES Conference of Parties - CoP 15 - Doha - Qatar


ABSTRACT

After years of protection, natural populations of black caimans (Melanosuchus niger) in Brazil have increased steadily. In 2003, the species was removed from the official Brazilian list of endangered species. More recently, based on a number of more comprehensive biological studies which indicated that the species has large and not fragmented wild populations and is widely distributed within its range, M.miger was downlisted to CITES Appendix II (CoP 14). The present report describes some of the main outcomes achieved by the Brazilian Government, in collaboration with universities, research institutes and non-government initiatives in order to develop science-based conservation programs to promote the sustainable use of caiman products and to provide economic benefits for local Amazonian communities. Firstly, biological data obtained systematically in three strategic localities within the Brazilian Amazon are presented. This is followed by a brief description on the evolution of M. niger management program in the Brazilian Amazon, which includes the forms of management and the development of current legislation. Finally, the perspectives and main constraints affecting the program development are discussed.



Ano de Publicação: 2010

Population assessment of a novel island invasive: tegu (Salvator merianae) of Fernando de Noronha -

ABSTRACT 

Fernando de Noronha is an oceanic archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, 345 km o􀵵 shore from the Brazilian coast. It comprises 21 islands and islets, of which the main island (FN) is 17 km2 with a rapidly growing tourism industry in the last decades. Despite being a protected area and bearing Ramsar and UNESCO World Heritage site status, it is threatened by multiple terrestrial invasive species since its colonisation in the early 16th century. Invasive species and the increasing tourism contributes to a list of at least 15 endangered or critically endangered species according to IUCN criteria. The black and white tegu (Salvator merianae) is the largest lizard in South America, occurring in most of the Brazilian territory and reaching up to 8 kg and 1.6 m from head to tail. As an omnivorous and opportunistic lizard, it feeds on a variety of available items, including smaller vertebrates and eggs. The introduction of the tegu to FN as well as its immediate impact on local fauna were not recorded; however, its ongoing impact is expected to be high. We captured and marked 103 tegu in FN during the months of February and November of 2015 and 2016. We also counted animals by line-transect census in a sparsely inhabited and an uninhabited area of FN. Body size a􀵵 ected the capture probabilities, while season and sex had little or no e􀵵 ect. Densities estimated by capture-recapture in the sparsely inhabited area varied from 2.29 to 8.28 animals/ha according to sampling season. Line transect census in the same area revealed a density of 3.98 (±1.1) animals/ha and in the uninhabited area 13.83 (±3.9) animals/ha. Home range was 10.54 ha, ranging from 7.36 to 15.33 hectares. Tegu activity decreased in the months of July and August of 2015. Results from this study can assist conservation managers and decision makers to implement a science-based tegu management programme in the future.

Keywords: conservation, invasive species, lizard, oceanic island, reptile, Salvator, Teiidae, Tupinambis

Ano de Publicação: 2019

Management of cats and rodents on inhabited islands: An overview and case study of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

ABSTRACT

a b s t r a c tIn this paper, an overview of introduced cat and rodent impacts on islands, and methods for their controland eradication, are presented. Fernando de Noronha, an inhabited oceanic island of Brazil, is used as a casestudy to illustrate the challenges of cat and rodent management on inhabited islands. Cat impacts havebeen recorded for 175 vertebrate species, and rat impacts for 173 plant and animal species. Eradicationof cats and rodents for species conservation has been successful on small to medium- sized uninhabitedor sparsely inhabited islands. However, examples of successful cat and rodent management programmesfor biodiversity on inhabited islands are limited. On inhabited islands localised control of cats and rodentsoccurs, but historically with a focus on agriculture, human livelihoods and animal welfare, and only morerecently on native species conservation. Control of cats and rodents on inhabited islands for speciesconservation lags behind uninhabited islands and the reasons for this are social and complex. Conser-vation managers often perceive a lack of support from island residents or administrators, which may ormay not actually be the case. Where support does not exist, it may relate to the provisioning of controlversus eradication, the techniques proposed, or wider socioeconomic issues. This ultimately translatesto conservation inaction, and the ongoing decline and extinction of island fauna. Abundance estimatesfor cats and density estimates for rats on Fernando de Noronha are presented, along with documentedbiodiversity impacts, to support recommendations for future management on Fernando de Noronha.

Ano de Publicação: 2018

The Ornithodoros capensis group (Acari: Argasidae): a morphological diagnosis and molecular characterization of O. capensis sensu stricto from Queimada Grande Island, Brazil -

Abstract

Ornithodoros capensis sensu lato (s. l.) is a worldwide-distributed group of soft ticks that parasitize birds in insular and continental lands. It is currently composed of 11 morphologically closely related species. Several viral and bacterial pathogens, and particularly Coxiella-like endosymbiont organisms have been described coexisting with ticks of this group. Since it last report in 1983, the presence of O. capensis s. l. in Brazil has remained  undocumented. By a morphological analysis of larvae and a molecular characterization of ticks and Coxiella genes we describe for the first time O. capensis sensu stricto in Brazil from specimens collected on Queimada Grande Island, in São Paulo state.

Key-words: Ornithodoros capensis sensu stricto, Argasidae, Queimada Grande, Brazil

Ano de Publicação: 2017

Prospects for domestic and feral cat management on an inhabited tropical island -

Abstract  

Cat management campaigns have been implemented on several islands worldwide. However, few successful campaigns have occurred on permanently inhabited islands. Cats are known for causing severe impacts on the native insular fauna, posing an important threat to biodiversity. Moreover, this species is also responsible for zoonosis maintenance and transmission. A thorough understanding of cat population structure (e.g., supervised vs. unsupervised) is strongly suggested as a management action on inhabited islands, as it might promote more efficient and effective management of this species. Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The total cat population on the main island was estimated at 1287 animals, most of them supervised and subsidized around inhabited areas. Free-roaming cats currently threaten the endemic terrestrial fauna of Fernando de Noronha, and the cat density found by the present work is among the highest ever recorded on an island. Using population dynamic simulations, the long-term effects of reproduction control and removal of cats from the archipelago were assessed. Removal of cats was also suggested as a necessary management strategy to achieve negative population growth. In addition, it was more costeffective than reproduction control. However, applying both removal and sterilization strategies to this population resulted in a higher population decrease than removal alone. For these reasons, a combination of reproductive control and cat eradication should be implemented in Fernando de Noronha. 

Keywords Cat Felis silvestris catus Fernando de Noronha Management Conservation


Ano de Publicação: 2017

First record of Pristimantis vinhai (Bokermann, 1975) (Anura: Craugastoridae) for the state of Pernambuco, Brazil - Primeiro registro de Pristimantis vinhai (Bokermann, 1975) (Anura: Craugastoridae

RESUMO 

O anuro Pristimantis vinhai pertence à família Craugastoridae, subfamília Ceuthomantinae. Era considerada endêmica do Estado da Bahia, mas, mais tarde foi registrado para o estado de Sergipe. Em agosto de 2014, um espécime de P. vinhai foi encontrado na serapilheira em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica denominada Mata do Toró (WGS 84, 08ᵒ03’38’’S; 35ᵒ10’57”O). O novo registro de P. vinhai para o Estado de Pernambuco se estende para o Norte de sua distribuição geográfica conhecida, em 344,40 Km, expandindo o conhecimento da anurofauna de Pernambuco.

Palavras-chave: Anura, Distribuição, Nordeste do Brasil.

ABSTRACT: The anuran Pristimantis vinhai belongs to Craugastoridae family, Ceuthomantinae subfamily. It was considered endemic to the state of Bahia, but was later recorded for the state of Sergipe. In August 2014, one specimen of P. vinhai was found on the leaf litter of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment named Mata do Toró (WGS 84, 08ᵒ03’38’’S; 35ᵒ10’57”O). The new record of P. vinhai for the State of Pernambuco extends to North its known geographical distribution in 344.40 km, expanding the knowledge of Pernambuco anurofauna.

Keywords: Anuran, Distribution, Northeastern of Brazil.

Ano de Publicação: 2016

Guia Ilustrado de Identificação de Cetáceos e Sirênios do Brasil ICMBio/CMA

Neste guia foram incluídos todas as espécies de pequenos e grandes cetáceos, pertencentes à Ordem Cetartiodactyla, contemplando praticamente todas as espécies de misticetos e odontocetos que ocorrem no Brasil. Os misticetos englobam o grupo das baleias. São animais de grande porte, uma de suas principais características é a presença de barbatanas, que são estruturas de queratina responsáveis pela filtração e retenção de alimento. Existem quatro famílias e seis gêneros de 14 espécies. Exceto as famílias Eschrichtiidae e Neobalaenidae, as demais ocorrem no Brasil. Os odontocetos são formados pelos grupos das baleias-bicuda, botos, golfinhos e cachalotes. São animais que além de habitarem todos os oceanos e mares internos do planeta, também ocorrem em água doce, ou seja, algumas espécies são fluviais. Uma das principais características é a presença de homodontia (todos os dentes apresentam forma igual). Existem 10 famílias de odontocetos, compreendidas em 34 gêneros e 92 espécies, sendo que para o litoral do Brasil já foram registradas até o momento 47 espécies. As famílias Monodontidae, Plantanistidae e Lipotidae não ocorrem no Brasil. CETÁCEOS 07 SIRÊNIOS Os sirênios, que são divididos em dois grupos Trichechidae e Dugongidae. No Brasil só ocorrem duas espécies, ambas Trichechidae, conhecidas como peixes-bois e contempladas no presente manual: o peixe-boi marinho, que vive no litoral entre os estados de Alagoas ao Amapá, e o peixe-boi-da-Amazônia, que vive na bacia amazônica, frequentando também o litoral do Amapá.

Ano de Publicação: 2019

CURSO SOBRE CRIAÇÃO DE RESERVAS PARTICULARES DO PATRIMÔNIO NATURAL

- Contrato nº 2018/000267

TDR Nº 142787

1. Apresentação do Curso 

A Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) é uma unidade de conservação de domínio privado criada com o objetivo de conservar a diversidade biológica, e gravada com perpetuidade por meio de ato voluntário de seu proprietário. É uma categoria de unidade de conservação prevista no Sistema Nacional de Unidade de Conservação da Natureza (SNUC) que permite a participação direta da sociedade civil no processo de ampliação das áreas protegidas no país. As RPPNs têm conquistado nos últimos anos um espaço cada vez maior na preservação e conservação dos ecossistemas brasileiros. Um dos pontos fortes dessa categoria de unidade de conservação é o fato de inserir a sociedade civil diretamente no processo de conservação da biodiversidade, uma vez que a criação de uma RPPN, parte do ato voluntário de proprietários rurais que desejam criar em suas propriedades uma unidade de conservação em caráter perpétuo. A criação de RPPN possibilita a participação da iniciativa privada no esforço nacional de conservação da biodiversidade para a ampliação das áreas protegidas no país. É um ato que apresenta índice altamente positivo na relação custo/benefício para o Governo Federal, pois desonera o poder público da regularização fundiária e da gestão da unidade de conservação, otimizando os tão escassos recursos destinados à conservação. Além disso, o processo de criação de uma RPPN é bem mais simples do que o processo de criação de outras categorias de unidades de conservação. Criando uma RPPN o proprietário não perde o direito de propriedade, tem isenção do Imposto Territorial Rural referente à área criada como RPPN, prioridade na análise dos


Ano de Publicação: 2018

Primatas do Parque Nacional do Viruá, Roraima, Brasil

RESUMO – Este trabalho apresenta o inventário consolidado de primatas do Parque Nacional do Viruá, Roraima, feito a partir da revisão da literatura e consulta ao material tombado nas coleções do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia e do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, da realização de expedições à unidade e de entrevistas no entorno. Amostras biológicas também foram coletadas e tombadas no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Primatas Brasileiros (CPB). Ao longo de seis dias efetivos em campo, foram obtidas 53 observações diretas das seguintes espécies: Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Sapajus apella, Aotus trivirgatus, Chiropotes sagulatus e Alouatta macconnelli. Além dessas espécies, as entrevistas apontaram ainda a presença de Cheracebus lugens e Ateles paniscus. Apenas Pithecia chrysocephala não foi observada nem citada nas entrevistas, provavelmente por ser uma espécie críptica e bastante silenciosa. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que S. apella e S. sciureus são as espécies mais abundantes. É possível que o fato de a amostragem ter se concentrado nas margens do Rio Branco tenha favorecido esse resultado. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras biológicas de animais encontrados em residências, das espécies S. apella, Cebus olivaceus, S. sciureus e C. sagulatus. Tendo em vista que o plano de manejo da unidade aponta a observação de fauna como um dos pilares do Programa de Uso Público, o presente estudo subsidiará as atividades relacionadas à observação de primatas.

Palavras-chave: Caracaraí-Roraima; diversidade; inventário; Amazônia; conservação.


ABSTRACT – Primates of Virua National Park, Roraima, Brazil. This study presents a consolidated inventory of the primates in the Viruá National Park, Roraima. The inventory was based on a literature review, consultation of the collections of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, expeditions in the Park, and interviews with the communities surrounding the Park. Biological samples were collected and deposited at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Primatas Brasileiros. Over six days in the field, 53 records of the following species were obtained: Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Sapajus apella, Aotus trivirgatus, Chiropotes sagulatus and Alouatta macconnelli. Besides these species, the interviews also pointed to the presence of Cheracebus lugens and Ateles paniscus. Pithecia chrysocephala was not observed nor mentioned in the interviews, probably because of its species’ cryptic and quiet behavior. The results indicate that S. apella and S. sciureus are the most abundant species. However, this might be biased by the fact that sampling was concentrated on banks of the Rio Branco. In addition, biological samples of S. apella, Cebus olivaceus, S. sciureus, and C. sagulatus were collected from animals found in residences around the Park. The Management Plan of the Viruá National Park points to wildlife tourism in the Program of Public Use.

Keywords: Caracaraí-RR; diversity; inventory; Amazon; conservation.


Ano de Publicação: 2017